Visioning or Envisioning exercise

  • a common strategic planning technique that gathers and consolidates views and insights of members of an organization/system, e.g., NSO staff, NSS key stakeholders, etc., to define the strategic direction or philosophy --- vision, mission, and core values, of that organization/system.

Strengths-Opportunities-Weaknesses-Threats (TOWS) analysis  

  • a variant/an extension of a SWOT analysis; involves the identification of an organisation’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and matching internal factors to external factors to help identify relevant strategic options that an organisation could pursue. 
  • can help an organisation to see how it can take advantage of opportunities, reduce threats, overcome weaknesses and exploit any strengths

Logical framework approach  

  • Objectives tree analysis  
    • a strategic planning tool that helps to analyze and graphically break down objectives into smaller and more manageable parts; derived from the parent tool, the problem tree.

Theory of change (TOC) analysis      

  • explains how activities are understood to produce a series of results that contribute to achieving the final intended impacts; can be developed for any level of intervention – an event, a project, a programme, a policy, a strategy or an organization. 

Focus group discussion (FGD)  

  • a qualitative research approach to generate perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, opinions, or ideas through a discussion among people/stakeholders of similar backgrounds or experiences.


  • A National Strategy for the Development of Education Statistics (NSDES)-Guidelines for Country-level design of the NSDES. UNESCO.  
  • Guide for country-level stakeholders in preparing their NSDES and medium-term capacity development program plan for education statistics, based on the overall NSDS process.
  • Provides steps for strategic planning toward improvement of education statistics.

Guidelines on Strategic Plans for Agricultural and Rural Statistics (SPARS). FAO.